Beranda Nahdlatul Ulama English Imam Hamzah az-Zayyat and the Authenticity of Qira'at

Imam Hamzah az-Zayyat and the Authenticity of Qira'at

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In Islam there is a very well-known adage that is “consistent in charity better than a thousand karamat”. This adage, perhaps, is worthy of being assigned to one of the qira'at sab'ah priests who is known to be consistent in his knowledge of the kalam, namely Imam Hamzah az-Zayyat.

The consistency of the imam is not only about worship but also concerns the principle that cannot be bargained for sincerity reaches for his pleasure and heaven.

His soul sincerity reaches for his blessing and heaven, he implements in his daily life selflessly, even though the difficulties he gets. He firmly refused any gift given by his students to him even though it was in the form of a glass of drinking water when he was thirsty in the heat of the hot sun. As soon as his mouth was said when he refused the gift “s] I did not receive any gift from someone who had studied the Qur'an to me, I only wished His blessings and heaven.”

Biography of Imam Hamzah ]

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His full name is Hamzah bin Habib ibn Imarah ibn Ismail az-Zayyat al-Kufi al-Taymi. The death of Abu Imarah. He is better known by the call Hamzah az-Zayyat (oil sword), because he brought oil from the Urf to Hulwan in Iraq. And bring cheese and beans from Hulwan to Kufah.

Imam Zahid was born in the year 80 AH, and at the age of fifteen, he solidified his memorization of the Qur'an.

In one of his narrations, he “won” a friend when he was a child, most likely he had seen and met some of them, therefore, he was called tabi'in.

Imam Hamzah is one of the qira'at sab 'priests ah who has the title “al-Hibr” (ink) and syaikh al-Qurra 'in Kufa. He became a role model for the Kufah community in the field of the Qur'an after the death of Ashim and al-A'masy.

In the field of the Qur'an, his expertise was not in doubt, so he received prestigious titles, namely tsiqah, hujjah, upright in about the book of God, proficient in the field of pharaoh, Arabic and many memorized hadith.

Imam Abu Hanifa said: “There are two things that you surpass us and are indisputable by us, namely the Qur'an and the science of Faraidh. [19659003] Intellectual Travel

Since childhood Imam Hamzah had begun memorizing the Qur'an, and when he turned fifteen, he solidified the memorization, then wandered around to teach some scholars who were experts in the field of Al -Qur'an, one of which is:

1. Abu Muhammad Sulaiman bin Mahran al-A'masy,

2. Abi Hamzah Hamran bin A'yun

3. Abu Ishaq Amr bin Abdullah al-Sabi'I

4. Muhammad bin Abi Laila

5. Thalhah bin Mushrif

6. Abi Abdullah Ja'far al-Sadiq

All the names of the teachers above, the transmission of the sanad leads to four companions, namely: Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Uthman ibn Affan, Ubay bin Ka'ab, Ali bin Abi Talib and Zaid son of Thabit. This means that qira'at Hamzah is a qira'at that can be justified for its reliability and validity.

Even so, from the teacher mentioned above, there is a high quality in the sanad, and some are low. The high Sanad is between the Prophet and Imam Hamzah through three paths, while the lower sanad between the Prophet and Imam Hamzah are four lines.

After his intellectual wandering was complete, Imam Hamzah then opened the Qur'anic study assembly for the local community. After Imam Ashim and Imam al-A'masy died, Imam Hamzah became a mecca and the imam in the field of the Koran replaced his second position.

Comments of the Ulama on Imam Hamzah

Imam Hamzah's expertise in the field of the Qur'an and its qira'at received appreciation from various parties including his own teacher, namely Imam al-A'masy, and gave him the title “al-Hibr.”

In a history it is said that Imam al-A'masy if he met Imam Hamzah he praised him and said: هذا حبر القرأن this is “hibr” (ink) of the Qur'an.

On another occasion, when Imam al-A'masy met with Imam Hamzah while saying: “وبشر المحسنين”

His wisdom has cultivated a solemn, submissive attitude, being an example in honesty and wira'I (leaving the case of the Syubhat especially haram), worshipers and zuhud of the world.

The above attitudes were implemented in his life by trying to stay away from all forms of giving and wages from the results of teaching Al-Qur'an.

One time there was a man from the famous people in Kufah studying with Imam Hamzah. As an expression of gratitude, the man gave Imam Hamzah a number of dirhams, but Imam Hamzah refused him while saying: “I do not want to take wages from the results of teaching the Qur'an. I only wish paradise paradise.

Imam Jarir bin Abdul Hamid told me that he met Imam Hamzah in the hot sun, (hot weather covered anyone who traveled), then I took him drinking water to drink so that he felt thirsty, but he refused, because he knew that I had studied the Qur'an with him.

So it is no exaggeration if Muhammad bin Fadhil said: “I do not think that Allah rejects 'disasters' to the people of Kufa except in the presence of Hamzah.

Comment of Ulama on Qira'at Imam Hamzah [19659003] Qira'at hamzah is a qira'at which is widely highlighted by the scholars, even in many turats books that meet the comments of scholars who are negative, one of which is Imam Ahmad bin Hambal, Syu'bah bin Ayyasy, Abdullah bin Idris ibn Yazid ibn Abdurrahman al-Audi, and Sufyan bin Uyainah.

Imam Ahmad bin Hambal said: “I do not like qira'at Hamzah in matters of imams and hamzah.”

Imam Syu'bah said: “Qira'at Hamzah bid'ah. “

Imam Sufyan bin Uyainah said:” If I pray behind a person who reads qira'at Hamzah, I will repeat my prayer “.

Imam Abdullah bin Idris said:” I am not pleased to say people who read qira at Hamzah as shahib sunnah. “

To answer the comments above, there were some scholars who wrote specifically to answer the comments above, one of which was (1) al-Sayyid bin Ahmad Abdurrahim with his work” Radd al-Kalam wa al-Syubhat 'An Qira'at min al-Mutawatirah fi al-Radd' Ala al-Tha'an fi Qira'at al-Imam Hamzah al-Kufi “; (2) Ali bin Muhammad Taufiq al-Nahhas with his work “Minutes of fi al-Radd 'Ala Man'I Qira'at Hamzah wa al-Kisa'I”.

What was delivered by Imam Syu'bah was unacceptable, because theoretically usul qira'at and practice of reading, between Imam Syu'bah and Imam Hamzah have many similarities. Even Imam al-Syatibi used the word formula (صحبة) as a signal of three priests, namely Imam Syu'bah, Hamzah and Ali al-Kisa'I.

Meanwhile, in transmission of the transmission, Imam Hamzah studied with Imam Ashim. This means that in this case, between Hamzah and Syu'bah one college. This shows that Imam Hamzah's qira'at was not much different from the reading of other qira'at priests. If there are some differences, that is another matter because Imam Hamzah does not only learn the Qur'an and its qira'at to one teacher. Isn't there a difference between Syu'bah and Hafs even though one teacher, Imam Ashim.

If Imam Ashim's reading is acceptable, why should Qira'at Imam Hamzah be rejected?!. How could qira'at Hamzah be labeled as qira'at bid'ah, while he was the owner of the title shahib sunnah and many scholars accepted his reading. Even famous ulamas such as Sufyan al-Tsauri received their readings.

While what Ahmad bin Hambal said was also not justified. Because between Imam Hamzah and Ahmad bin Hambal had a very far distance. Hambal Imam was born after Imam Hamzah died. Ahmad bin Hambal was born in 164 AH, while Imam Hamzah died in 156 H. Both never met, and did not during that time.

This means, it could be that what Imam Ahmad said was not intended by Imam Hamzah's reading alone but reading people others who read qira'at Hamzah inappropriately. Thus giving the impression that Imam Ahmad did not like qira'at Imam Hamzah.

In addition, Imam Ahmad expressed his appreciation to Imam Sufyan al-Tsauri, even though he was a student of Imam Hamzah.

Imam Ahmad said: “Al-Tsauri was the first person in my heart.”

Hierarchy of qira'at narrations, Imam al-Tsauri was a student of Imam Hamzah who incurred four times even in history that Imam al -Tsauri recite to besides Hamzah.

What was conveyed by Ibn Idris cannot be understood literally, it must be seen from the context and the case. Because the phrase arose because there was a person who learned to Imam Sulaim, a student of Hamzah, was present in Ibn Idris's majlis, then the person read the Qur'an before Ibn Idris, he heard the reading was excessive in mad (the size of its length) and forced hamzah. From there Ibn Idris's dislike arose.

Ibn al-Jazari said: “As for what was said by Abdullah bin Idris and Ahmad ibn Hambal on their dislike (towards Hamzah's reading), intended to those who heard from Imam Hamzah and quoted the Imam's reading Hamzah, it is not the news damage except the reporter. “

Imam Thahir bin Ghalbun loudly warned the people who rejected Imam Hamzah's reading:” Whoever rejects Imam Hamzah's reading, actually he rejects reading that teaches reading these (Imam Hamzah's teachers) and to the Prophet Muhammad. It is enough that he has committed a great sin and real ignorance. This expression is not in order to insult other scholars but in order to maintain (validity) qira'at Imam Hamzah.

In addition to the above debate, Imam Hamzah himself has warned anyone who reads the Qur'an must read the good is not excessive.

Imam Hamzah conveyed to someone who reads to him who is excessive in reading mad and tahqiq the letter hamzah “don't do it!” don't you know that the above white is striped, above curly is kribo (very critical), above the correct reading, is an incorrect reading.

Authentication of Qira'at Hamzah

Imam Uqbah proclaims his father's phrase about qira'at Imam Hamzah, while said: “We were with Sufyan al-Tsauri, then Hamzah came to al-Tsauri and talked with him, after he finished, Imam Sufyan asked us:” Do you know who this person is? He did not read even one letter from the book of God except using atsar. “

Imam Hamzah stated that the qira'at all came from atsar with clear transmission. He researched the people who met the previous qira'at scholars, until then he became an expert in the field of qira'at and his schools.

Imam Aswad bin Salim asked Imam Ali al-Kisa'I about the teacher As a role model for the reading of Hamzah and Idgham, do you have a teacher who teaches about Hamzah and Idgham? He answered, He, namely Imam Hamzah as my reference, I read (in a pattern) hamzah and kasrah ( imalah ), he was one of the priests of the Muslims, and the leader of qira'at experts who lived zuhud , if you look at it, your soul will feel calm, peaceful from its aura of worship (worship expert).

Imam al-Dzahabi said: “Qira'at Imam Hamzah is a qira'at which is found by the ulama to even be the ijma 'ulama for kesahehan and its concern, though the other qira'a are classified as those which are afshah [most fluent]because qira'at which is recognized as a legitimate qira'at is qira'at that is fluent and affectionate. He continued his statement that the validity and concerns of Imam Hamzah's qira'at can be proved by the testimony of Imam Sufyan al-Tsauri, who said “not Hamzah read the Qur'an except with atsar.”

Imam Hamzah said: “I read Al- The Qur'an to Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq in Medina, then he said: “No one who reads the Qur'an is better than you”. Then Imam Hamzah replied: “I am no different from reading with you except in ten letters, nevertheless it is still permissible in Arabic.

This appreciation given by Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq shows that Qira'at Imam Hamzah did not come out from valid reading, according to the rules of Arabic and according to Rasm Ustmani.

Privileges of Imam Hamzah

Consistent reading of the Qur'an and repeating it are an integral part of the life of the Imam of the Zahid. Even Imam al-Syatibi gave him the title “shaburan” which was steadfast and patient repeating his memorization.

reading the Qur'an by looking at the Mushaf, because I am afraid my vision is gone. The phrase conveyed by the priest is nothing but his consistency in reading the Qur'an and putting forward the side of worship to always keep his eyesight from things other than the Qur'an. In reading the Qur'an, Hamzah used the mushaf spelling of Abdullah bin al-Zubair.

Aside from being consistent in reading the Qur'an, Imam Hamzah also consistently devoted his soul to studying the Qur'an, even though quite a long time and draining. This was witnessed by Abdullah bin Isa, he said: “Imam Hamzah taught the Qur'an to his students (in large numbers) until it was finished until they returned to their respective places. After that, he rose to perform the four raka'at prayers, the prayer between dhuhur and ashar and between maghrib and isha '. Some of his neighbors said that he never slept at night and they heard Imam Hamzah fill his night by reading the Qur'an. The phrase conveyed by Abdullah bin Isa shows that he is a sincere person devoted himself to his Lord's words. Meanwhile, the time used for teaching is morning to dhuhur time and finished ashar to maghrib.

Imam Hamzah is one of the qira'at priests who has a very high spirit of sincerity, he does not want to accept any gift for his labors to teach Al-Qur'an. This is one of his most famous privileges among his students to us.

Imam Khalaf bin Tamim said: “When my father died, he had dependents. Then I went to Hamzah to be conveyed to the owner of the debt. Then Imam Hamzah was surprised and said: “Woe to you … !!! He is a person who learns to read the Qur'an to me, while I do not like to drink from the homes of those who study to me.


Aside from being a qira'at imam, Imam Hamzah also known as an honest sword. In carrying out his two activities, Imam Hamzah divided his time, one year in Hulwan, one year in Kufa. On the sidelines of the drum it stole time to transfer its faith to the claimants of knowledge.

There were many who studied with Imam Hamzah and countless, one of whom was Ibrahim bin Adham, al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Ju'fi, Sulaim bin Isa, including the most dhabith students, Sufyan al-Tsauri, Ali bin Hamzah al-Kisa'I, including senior student, Yahya bin Ziyad al-Farra ', Yahya bin al-Mubarak al-Yazidi.

After devoting all his soul and body to blessing the Qur'an without strings attached and calculation, led him to a good place by his side, he died in the year, 156 in Hulwan at the age of 76.

Ustadz Moh. Fathurrozi Lovers of Qira'at Sciences, Head of the Qur'anic Sciences and Interpretation of IAI Al Khoziny Buduran Sidoarjo

(Writing is adapted from the book “Tarikh al-Qurra 'al-Asyrah wa ruwwatuhum” by Syekh Abdul Fattah al-Qadhi, [Kairo: Maktabah al-Qahirah]2010; and “Mu'jam Al-Qur'an Huffadz Abra al-Tarikh” by Salim Muhaisin. Volume I, [Bairut: Dar al-Jayl]1992; “Radd al-Kalam as-Syubhat ' an Qiraat Mutawatirah “by as-Sayyid Ahmad Abdurrahim [Tantha: Darus Shahabah lit Turats, 2006]; Asanid al-Qurra 'al-Asyrah wa Ruwwatuhum al-Bararah by as-Sayyid Ahmad Abdurrahim [Mesir: al-Jami’ah al-Khairiyah li Tahfidzil Qur’an, 2011])

Also read the biography of the qira'at priests: [19659072] • Nafi 'al-Madani, Imam Qira'at who studied in 70 Tabi'in
• Warsy, Imam Qira'at who spoke beautifully
• Imam Qalun and Path of Qira'at Sciences
• Ibnu Kathir al-Makki, Imam Qira'at of Generations Tabi'in
• Abu Amr al-Bashri, Imam Qiraat with Most Teachers
• Ibn Amir Ash-Shami, Imam Qira'at Owner of the Highest [1 9659072] • Biography of Ashim bin Abi al-Najud, Imam Qira'at who was very memorized


This Article was Published On: NU Online

Translated by Google Translate



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