Kota Balkh, Warisan Peradaban Islam di Afghanistan


The city of Balkh is currently one of the names of the provinces in Afghanistan. It is located in the north of the country of Afghanistan. Balkh is an ancient city that is around 3000 years old. The city was built around 1500 BC Formerly the city was part of the Khurasan region, and also a city where various religions lived.

Before Islam entered this region, the city of Balkh was the center of Zoroastrian religion and the capital of the Arsacid Dynasty of the Parthian empire and the capital of the Greek-Bactrian empire.

At Balkh, there were many temples used to worship Zoroastrian gods and goddesses. In some historical literature, before being under the control of Islamic government, the city alternated under the control of ancient BC kingdoms, such as the Indo-Scythians, Parthians, Indo-Parthians, Kushan Enmpires, Sasanid Dynasties, etc.


early in the century BC, the city of Balkh was studded with Buddhist temples adorned with emeralds and gems, even Balkh at that time became the center of pilgrimage to Buddhism throughout the world. So that before being under Islamic rule, Balkh was very thick with Buddhist culture.

The city of Balkh first fell into the hands of Muslim forces around 43 H / 663 AD, through troops led by Qais Ibn Haitsam. The city began to be known to the public when it was built by Asad Ibn Abdullah, Governor of Khurasan during the Umayyad Dynasty.

In this time of Asad Ibn Abdullah, Balkh was made the capital city of Khurasan in 118 AH / 735 AD. the center of the Khurasan region and the vast Persian plain, the city was dubbed Ummul Bilad.

After the Umayyad rule ended, Balkh was ruled by the Abbasid Dynasty. The city was first conquered by the Abbasids through Abu Dawud al-Barqi, a believer of Abu Muslim al-Khurasani.

After the Abbasid dynasty collapsed, the town of Balkh took turns under the dynasties such as Shaffariyah, Samaniyah, Ghaznawiyah, Saljuk, Ghuriyah, Khwarizmiyah, and Moghul.

The city of Balkh, has long been known as a cool and comfortable city, because it is located in the mountains of Paromisus, which stretches from the edge of the Afghan border with West Iran, and Mount Khush.

very strategic, making Muslim nomads make this place an important stopover in the Middle Ages, including Ibn Ruslan and Ibn Batuta, who have recorded important things in this city in his works.

In medieval times, the city of Balkh is increasingly shining after being the center of a meeting of Sufi groups. The city of Balkh was at that time known as the main destination city for spirituality seekers, the Sufis. Darwis, philosophers, wisdom experts, theologians from cities such as Samarkand, Naisabur, Shiraz, Baghdad, Aleppo, Konya and also from India and China. They often gather at Khwaja Mosque Abu Nashr Parsa.

The city is also the birthplace of the great Sufi Jalaluddin ar-Rumi and other great scholars, such as Abu Sayd Al-Balkhi. The city of Balkh holds many relics of Islamic civilization, including the Green Mosque, the Haji Piyada Mosque or the No Gonbad / Noh Gumbad Mosque (Masjid Nine Kubah) which was built around 7 CE and entered the historic site of Unesco.

the tombs of the mullahs, Sufis, and also the poets. One of the tombs in Balkh is the tomb of the poet Rabi'a al-Balkhi.

Wallahu A'lam.

This Article Was Published On : ISLAMI.CO

Translated by Google Translate


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