How do these three things happen? Reading a book Religion and Radicalism in Indonesia which was published in 2007 we will meet with the writing of Jamhari Makruf (Professor of Anthropology at UIN Jakarta) entitled Islamic Radicalism in Indonesia: Momentary Phenomenon? we can get important and interesting information about radical or extremist groups. This information can be used as a means to uncover the disturbing character of the group and must continue to be resisted.
If viewed from the background of its establishment, Jamhari suspected extremist groups were born of political dissatisfaction and political marginalization. According to him, religion is not the first factor in extremism. Although at a later stage religion is the main factor to legitimize their actions. Jamhari illustrates, for the Indonesian context, namely the emergence of FPI, MMI and Laskar Jihad. The birth of the group could not be separated from the political setting, but later they made religion a shield.
Furthermore, another factor that supported the emergence of extremist groups was the existence of solidarity among Muslims. The group felt that their actions were right even rewarding and would be rewarded by heaven, because it was a reward for West's arbitrary actions against Muslims, especially in the Middle East. So, it is not unusual if after extremists take action (for example bombing) a similar narrative emerges: falling victims are not worth the number of our fellow brothers who died in the Middle East due to Western aggression.
Jamhari also noted: extreme / radical is actually only a minor group. Their members are actually not many. They seem to be big and influential because of the militancy and the incessant actions they carry out. A little but fierce and loud will certainly steal more attention than those who are many but whisper and polite. Jamhari then reminded, although extremist groups have few members but master the technology (internet). This makes them able to easily disseminate their ideas. Including recruitment of their members do online .
The main character of extremist groups, according to Jamhari, is the use of violence. Can be seen for example their enthusiasm in dissolving and destroying immoral places, which usually occurs in the fasting month. Quibble amar ma'ruf nahi munkar, they feel representing law enforcers in eradicating community diseases. The inconsequential steps they took could be read as tactics / strategies so that their voices could be heard by the public.
The subsequent effects were media coverage and public conversation. Although there will be many people who hate and condemn such methods, it is possible that some people will sympathize and support, because it is considered as a struggle to uphold the religion of God.
Extremist groups are also keen to seek enforcement of Islamic law. They consider something wrong with democracy, Pancasila and the Constitution. Islam must be practiced thoroughly, including in running the government. The spirit of upholding Islamic Shari'a into fuel is endless in their actions. It becomes very problematic if the action they take is an act of violence.
The characteristics of the extremist group described by Jamhari Makruf are certainly not final conclusions, but the starting point for researching the group. However, the extremist movement usually refers to “inviting Muslims back to Islamic teachings” or “an invitation to rely on the fundamental principles of Islam to meet contemporary needs and challenges”. Extremist movements can also be seen as part of the social negotiation process in formulating a new social order. 
Jamhari closed his writings with high hopes for the two largest Islamic organizations in Indonesia, NU and Muhammadiyah. As long as the two organizations are still able to play their role, extremist group movements can be dammed. NU with Islamic boarding schools and ulama networks, Muhammadiyah with educational institutions (from PAUD to universities) and business charity businesses.
This Article Was Published On : ISLAMI.CO
Translated by Google Translate