Center for the Study of Islam and Society (PPIM) UIN Jakarta held a study focusing on the Views and Attitudes of Religion School / Madrasah Teachers in Indonesia. The target population of the survey is Muslim teachers in schools or madrasas at the level of TK / RA, SD / MI, SMP / MTs, and SMA / MA.
The total sample of teachers surveyed reached 2,237 people from 34 provinces in Indonesia. The sample of female teachers was 1,335 people (59.79 percent), while male teachers were 898 people (40.21 percent). The sample of teachers was also classified into several categories; Public school teachers 1172 people (52.39 percent), private 1065 people (47.61 percent), PNS teachers 925 people (41.35 percent), non-PNS permanent 270 people (12.08 percent), but the foundation 562 people (25.13), and 479 honorary persons (21.42).
The survey was conducted in the span of time between 6 August to 6 September 2018. To measure the level of intolerance, this survey used two measuring instruments. First, the Implicit Association Test (IAT). This measuring instrument is used to see the potential of teacher intolerance implicitly. Second, questionnaire. This is to assess intolerance and radicalism and the factors that influence it explicitly.
The results of the survey show that 63.07 percent of teachers in Indonesia have intolerant opinions on adherents of other religions (IAT). Meanwhile, from the questionnaire data there are 56.90 percent of teachers who have intolerant opinions. Meanwhile, as many as 21 percent of teachers disagree with their non-Muslim neighbors holding religious events.
This survey also portrays the intention of the action of teacher intolerance in Indonesia, not just opinion. As a result, as many as 37.77 percent had intentions of intolerant action against adherents of other religions. Intention of intolerant action for example, if there is an opportunity, as many as 34 percent of teachers wish to sign a petition to reject the establishment of schools based on non-Islamic religions around their homes. Meanwhile, 29 percent of teachers wished to sign a petition rejecting the heads of education agencies of different faiths. As many as 33 percent of teachers encourage others to go to war to establish an Islamic state. Meanwhile, 29 percent even agreed to participate in jihad in Syria, Iraq and the South Philippines in order to fight for the establishment of an Islamic state.
As for radical action intentions, 41.26 percent of teachers had the opportunity to undertake radical action if there was an opportunity. From the results of the questionnaire questions, as many as 27.59 percent of teachers wished to encourage others to join the war in establishing an Islamic state. 13.30 percent of teachers wish to attack police who arrest people who try to uphold an Islamic state.
 900 related factors
There are three factors that can be attributed to teacher intolerance and radicalism in Indonesia. First, Islamism. A view that emphasizes how Islamic law should be used as the main reference source in all aspects of life, including in the political sphere.
“The factor of Islamism is an important variable related to teacher intolerance and radicalism,” he said at the 2018 PPIM Survey Launching in Jakarta, Tuesday (10/16).
Then what is the picture of Islamism among teachers in Indonesia? As many as 62.22 percent of teachers agreed that the best government system is based on Islamic law. As many as 82.77 percent of teachers claimed to agree that Islam is the solution to all the problems of the community.
The most astonishing thing is that 23.42 percent of the teachers agreed that the Indonesian state based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution was thaghut. Meanwhile, 75.98 percent agreed if the government imposed Islamic Sharia for its adherents.
Second, demographic aspects. Gender, private and public schools, income, subjects taught, education, and age are also related to teacher intolerance and radicalism. For example, female teachers (mean = 46.53) had an intolerant opinion on adherents of other religions higher than male teachers (mean = 48.05). Likewise in radical action intentions: female teachers (mean = 48.08; mean = 50.08), while male teachers (mean = 55.1; mean = 56.3).
Even in terms of income. The lower the income the higher the opinion (F = 3.390, p = 0.009) and the intention of radical action (F = 10.481, p = 0.000). The older the teacher's age shows the more tolerant, and the lower the opinions and intentions of the radical action (M = 40,55; F20,037; p = 0,000; R2 = 9 percent).
The level of education is also related to teacher intolerance and radicalism. TK / RA teachers have an intolerant opinion (F = 4.339; p = 0.005) towards non-Muslims who are higher than SD / MI, SMP / MTs, and SMA / MA teachers.
Third, mass organizations and sources of Islamic knowledge. According to Umam, the involvement of teachers with Islamic organizations both now and now as students is also a factor associated with intolerance and radicalism among teachers.
The teachers claimed to be close to five Islamic organizations, namely Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) 46.22 percent (mean = 48.33), Muhammadiyah 19.19 percent (mean = 46.46), Nahdlatul Wathan (NW) 3 percent (mean = 44.03), Islamic Defenders Front (FPI) 2.28 percent (mean = 39.04), and the Qur'anic Interpretation Assembly (MTA) 1.21 percent. However, only 33.65 percent of teachers claimed to be very active / active in these Islamic organizations. While the rest (66.35 percent) said they were not / very active.
“There is a relationship between those who are active in mass organizations with intolerance or not, that's how it is. We don't want to say that this (this organization) is more intolerant, no, “he explained.
Of the several findings from the survey, there were three recommendations proposed. First, increase programs that provide the teacher's experience to experience diversity and pluralism.
Second, increase the welfare of teachers by making a minimum standard of teacher payment without distinguishing between private and state. Third, empowerment of institutions that produce teachers – such as Tarbiyah faculty, more attention to non-National Examination subject teachers, honorary teachers, and private teachers so that there is no difference in treatment. (Muchlishon)
This Article was Published On: NU Online